01 December 2004
Med Sci Monit 2004; 10(12): MT127-132 :: ID: 13239
This insight review introduces the new concepts, theories, technology, instruments, frontier issues, and key strategies of ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity) biosensors, from the fermi to the quantum levels. Information about ADMET, originating from one author’s invention, a patented pharmacotherapy for rescuing cardio-cerebral vascular stunning and regulating vascular endothelial growth-factor signaling at the post-genomic level, can be detected by a new generation of ADMET biosensor. This is a single-cell/single-molecule field-effect transistor (FET) hybrid system, where single molecules or single cells are assembled at the FET surface in a high density array manner via complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible technologies. Within a given nanometer distance, ADMET-mediated oxidation-reduction (redox) potentials, electrochemistry responses, and electron transfer processes can be simultaneously and directly probed by the gates of field-effect transistor arrays. The nanometer details of the functional coupling principles and characterization technologies of DNA single-molecule/single-cell FETs, as well as the design of lab-on-a-chip instruments, are indicated. Four frontier issues and key strategies are elucidated in detail. This can lead to innovative technology for high-throughout screening of labs-on-chips to resolve the pharmaceutical industry’s current bottleneck via novel, FET-based drug discovery and single-molecule/single-cell screening methods, which can bring about a pharmaceutical industry revolution in the 21[sup]st[/sup] century.
Keywords: Biosensing Techniques - instrumentation, Biosensing Techniques - methods, Biosensing Techniques - trends, Biosensing Techniques - trends, Drug Design, Electrophysiology - methods, Transistors, Electronic
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